HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Fri, 04 Dec 2020 04:58:09 GMT 免费看操B视频

城市无界,城市群发展带来房地产投资新机遇

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 房地产市场价量齐升 家具建材生意回暖 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

政府工作报告:今年明显降低企业社保缴费负担

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

The crown passed from the Plantagenet dynasty to the Tudor monarchs who painted Richard as a deformed villain who stopped at nothing in his quest for power, even murdering his two young nephews -- the so-called Princes in the Tower -- to secure the throne.
Sectors: what’s in
adj. 透视的
明星们的尴尬走光
n. 校订,修正,修订本,复习
在MBA榜单上,伦敦商学院、INSEAD和西班牙企业商学院(IE Business School)毕业生的薪酬相差无几,只有几美元的差距。INSEAD的毕业生薪资最高,为15.5015万美元。
以下是其中最值得期待的10部,我们相信这10部电影都将成为票房宠儿,值得反复欣赏。

A cemetery dating back roughly 1,700 yearshas been discovered along part of the Silk Road, a series of ancient trade routes that once connected China to the Roman Empire.
单词creative 联想记忆:
安汉德
5.《出租车司机》
Wages will finally accelerate after years of stagnation

Footnotes

  • 渤海钢铁陷千亿债务危机 3.5亿起拍总部办公房产抵债
  • 根据《人民日报》的一份报告,截至2016年年底,中国的电影银幕已达到41179块,另外新增1612家电影院和9552块电影银幕。

A fascinating study from researchers at the University of North Florida reveals that running barefoot may actually improve your memory more than running with shoes. While most memory studies seem to take place in a laboratory or room where everyone sits at a table, this experiment definitely introduced an interesting idea to the search for a better memory. The experiment focused on something called "working memory," which is the human ability to process information and recall details throughout life. The scientists published the results of their study in "Perceptual and Motor Skills," and found that running barefoot resulted in a not-insignificant memory boost when compared with memory performance after running with shoes. The researchers found that tossing your shoes off and running for about 16 minutes at a comfortable pace could result in a 16% improvement in working memory performance.
The quality of consumer goods imported through channels other than e-commerce proved to be higher, with only 29 percent falling short of standards, according to figures released by the administration.
The hair creates a resemblance to the look of Michelle Pfeiffer, but Ms. Chastain gives it more of an edge. Kay Georgiou, who frequently styles the hair of Matt Damon and Gwyneth Paltrow for films, oversaw the look.
inspect(vt 检查;视察)根:spect看
Finance is one of top school Edhec’s core strengths, both in terms of teaching and research. The school in 2001 established the Edhec-Risk Institute to produce and distribute research on areas such as asset and risk management.
adj. 最初的,首要的,最好的,典型的

楼市回暖了?报告称三四线代表城市仍在降温

References

View Abstract