HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Fri, 04 Dec 2020 04:31:24 GMT 明星智能ai淫梦

定制家具如何进行服务升级

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 中关村分园部分项目可获40%房租补贴 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

楼市成木门市场风向标 行业洗牌推动企业转型

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

“能被评为全球最国际化的大学之一,这个名单中的所有学校都是值得祝贺的。这标志着它们拥有巨大的潜力、竞争力和发展动力。”
Yes. Mr Modi’s overnight ban on using high-value bank notes was a big shock, and seriously disrupted the economy. But it delivered rich political rewards, bolstering the premier’s image as a decisive leader willing to take tough action against corruption. With the next general elections due in 2019, Mr Modi will be tempted to deliver one more big bang to dazzle voters. Watch out for dramatic action against wealthy individuals holding properties in others’ names to hide their ownership.
Dachis says: Strong financial performance combined with a slew of new features made LinkedIn a magnet for positivity in 2012. Positivity like this could help the company move from stern business network to lively communications platform in 2013.
As for his own education: He's weighing whether to enroll in university in England or maybe the U.S. to be closer to Silicon Valley. Or perhaps he'll skip college entirely and just focus on his work. 'I absolutely want to start another company,' he says. 'Serial entrepreneurs get addicted to creation. I want to be passionate. I feel really bad when I'm not doing something new.'
中国投资10亿美金用以将进一步打造C9大学(中国最好的9所大学)。 经费将会主要用来吸引顶级的教职人员,建造世界一流的教学设施,和招募一流的声源。中国将会国际智力、教育和技能的人才大战中逐鹿。
If you are a working-class white person and you fear that the new, cosmopolitan world will destroy or diminish an identity you cherish, you have no culturally acceptable way to articulate what you perceive as a crisis.
As the socialite arrived at Kylie Jenner's 19th birthday party in August she alighted her sports car in such a cack-handed (cack-legged, I suppose) way that meant that more was glimpsed than intended.

1. Buy expensive tailored clothing that only sort of fits so that most of the time your buttons appear to be just seconds from bursting.
Supporting Actress in a Mini-Series or Movie: Regina King, “American Crime”
最后,不管你是什么性格的人,积极生活,健康向上!
单词virtue 联想记忆:
在4月24日当天,周某带着农药来到重庆荣昌益民技工学校,并把毒药藏在了桌子下面。

Footnotes

  • 中国智造路线图出炉:LED屏企如何拥抱“互联网+智能化”
  • “The employee said she was going out to buy boots, but was never seen again.”

China does not want to see a trade war between the US and China. That would not make our trade fairer and cause loss for the both sides.
Estimates for the size of the industry vary but Goldman Sachs figures suggest that sector loans grew from Rmb6bn to Rmb83bn between 2012 and 2014.
我们要咬定青山不放松,持之以恒为群众办实事、解难事,促进社会公平正义,把发展硬道理更多体现在增进人民福祉上。
[?'lju?]
Meanwhile, he was being ferried around the globe to tech conferences, getting introduced to other potential investors. D'Aloisio made a remarkable impression on everyone he crossed paths with. 'He has an eerie maturity,' says Andrew Halls, headmaster of the King's College School in Wimbledon, which D'Aloisio has attended since he was 11. 'He has an extraordinary articulateness in the face of situations that, for me, even as a 54-year-old, might be terrifying.'
Dua Lipa, 'Dua Lipa'

楼市半年成交量五年最高 预计全年涨幅可达8%至10%

References

View Abstract